206 Apr 03 - LecDem on Papanasham Sivan Compositions by Dr.Radha Bhaskar and Smt.Gayathri.Girish
The key points from their LecDem
Sri. Papanasam Sivan is a post trinity vAggEyakara and is also called as Tamil tyAgayya.
The similarities between both saint TyAgayya and Sivan are
- Both have their own Ishta dEvata and composed a lot of songs on them. Rama for tyAgayya and kApAlishwara and karpagambAL for Sivan.
(I would also feel even Thiruchendur muruga should be also sivan's ishta devata if we see the number of compositions on thiruchendur muruga.)
- Both are known for their personalized form of bhakthi as exhibited in their kritis.
- Both composed a lot of medium tempo kritis
- Simple, easy to understand style and language is lucid, conversational type so simple a layman can connect himself with their songs.
But the greatness of sri. Sivan is he followed what trinity composed but improved his own. He didn’t follow tyAgarAjA’s pattern on melody aspect tyAgarAja composed both anu pallavi and charanam in same melodic pattern. repetetion of anu pallavi melody in charanam also Sivan didn’t follow tyAgarAja but he followed MD. He used different melody for his charanam which brought a freshness.
He also composed many kritis, kIrtanAs, varNas and few tillAnas. he also composed two operas.
2.KARAIKAL AMMAYAR( A SAIVA NAYANMAR)
The duo presented two songs
1.Ka Va Vaa( varali)
where sivan used different tunes for each charana.
2.Tiruparam kundra vela(hindolam) where the anu pallavi and charana are of same melody , similar to tyAgarAja utsava sampradAya kritis.
As they explained sivan has exhibited more personalized form of bhakthi in his compositions. It is more like a conversation between sivan and god..
Different type of bhakthi expressed by sivan
1.Nayaki Nayaka bhavam: In his varnams (Ex: Nattakurunji pada varnam)
2.Thai Chey bhavam (mother and son affection) (Amba nI irangavidil, pArvati nAyakane charanam)
3.Self pity (Pilla puliyar_Maya malava golwla,Pirava varum :Latangi)
4.Smaranam:remembering god always( Tirupathi Venkata Ramana)
5.Saranagathi( srinivasa thava charanam)
6.Nindha stuthi (GG presented a beautiful suruti song “ pichaiku vandeero) explaining about the bikshadanar kolam of kapali)
While following the foot step of trinity, sivan has his own imagination and improvisation with the boundary.
He has brought the rakti raga aspect/identification in the first phrase of the song it self. Rakti ragas are identified by typical phrases.
kAnada: kAnthimathim annayaye
kEdAragauLa: samiku sari evvaro.
sahAna: chittam irangadenaiya. the key note rishaba is appearing in first phrase itself.
In mainly varali “ ka va va” it dwels on gandharam then lands through rishaba then shandjamam.different from mamava meenakshi of MD and kamakshi varali of shyama shastry where the gandhara lands to shandjamam directly..
In todi keertanai kundra kudi vela he built sangatis step by step.
In Adum deivame the sangatis at adum brings a dancing effect.or oscillating sangatis at adum( dancing)
Sivan compositions in rare ragas.
BImplAs: kannan Madura idazhai
valaji: pAdame thunai paramasiva
Shivaranjani: on lord ganesha :tharunam idahiya
tilAng: sri ganesha charanam
Sivan like tyAgarAja swami has composed 20 keertanais in karaharapriya. Please note MD and shyama sastri never composed any in karaharapriya)
Both artists on stage demonstrated 3 kIrtanAs in karaharapriya bringing the uniqueness of each. Sivan present new approach to karaharapriya, used different tempo, and kalapramanam.
2.srinivasa thava charanam: he used 2 kalai
3.illai endra sol ondrum mattum vendam: this is in tisra nadai. This song was composed on faith in god, counter to atheist movement which was dominant in 1950 and 1960 in Tamil Nadu.
Sivan also composed songs with swarakshara.
Parvathi nayakane charanam
Mahalakshmi jagan matha
Sivan also composed madhyama kala kIrtanAs like muthuswamy dikshitar.
He also presented enitire charana in madhyama kala, karpagame in madhyamavathi. Like MD’s kanjhadAlayatAkshi.
Sivan also composed swara sahithyam like shyama sastry.
Example samaja varagamanan in madhyamavathi
Sivan also composed songs in different kalapramanam. He took same raga hindolam and composed songs in
Vilamba : ma ramanan. Here the jArus are more prominent like Hindustani music than gamakas.
Madhyama : samagana lolane,here gamaks are more prominent
Duritha: nambi kettavar evarayya
The different kalapramanams helps to reveal gamakas in different dimensions. The minute details of the raga portrayed differently in different tempo.
Sivan also composed two songs in keravani with entirely different approach.
In karunakarane siva sankarane he dwells more on the stability of shadjamam.
But in devi neeye thunai he never touches adara shadjamam even once,, dwelling more in rishabam then moved to thara stayi..
Sivan composed around 50 songs in Sanskrit. He used very simple words even a common man can understand. He was a upadhyaya in Sanskrit and he has compiled a Sanskrit dictionary.
1.narayana hari nayaka :sama
2.sri madhava vasudeva: behag
Sivan also composed songs with appreciation in grammar aspects.
Annaporneswari : bhairavi, the last words of each line are rhymic
Sri visvanatham baje : the last words of each line is rhymic
In thava charanam mama charanam song the second word of each line is rhymic
Sivan also composed a lot of tamil Sanskrit mani pravalam songs, the both languages seamlessly mixes much like tyAgarAja utsava sampradaya kitis where he seamlessly mixes telugu and Sanskrit.
Sivan like tyAgarAja used edupu as a tool to bring different internal structure or flow. He used different edupus to bring different internal structure or flow.
sama eDupu examples
Padame thunai paramasiva
Unnai alal( kalyani)
atIta eDupu (occurs after samam point of tALa)
¾ edupu Sri ganesha saranam
1 ½ edupu : sri madhava vasu deva
2 kalai ½ Edam : saravana bhava guhane
anAgata eDupu (occurs before samam point of tALa)
His versatility and depth of knowledge in various tALAs was also demonstrated by highlighting a krithi in various tALAs.
Tisranadai rupakam : Venkata Ramana
Kanda chapu : thanikai malai kumara
Misra chapu : mahalakshmi jagan matha
Both Artists presented a tillana in behag together
Sivan also composed songs on natrue, tamil language speciality, in praise of tamil language, freedom movement and patriotic songs.
He has composed pamalaiku enai undo in praise of subramanya bharathi
He has acted in 4 films and composed lot of classical songs as film music
Sivan famous songs
1.krishna mukunda murare : MKT in sivakavi
2.giridara gopala by MSS in meera
The composers like sivan has composed lot of songs which forms pillar of carnatic music. If any rasika wants to appreciate a raga tODi or shankarabharanam he can listen to songs of composer like sivan as they have frozen or codified the raga in those compositions for posterity.
The compositions form the context of music for structure and melody. Artist’s appeal was instead of simply listening to a song please go in deep and analyze the same which will enhance your enjoyment to multitude.
Art is always greater than Artist. The raga exploration is journey towards a mirage as u won’t reach the destination.